Tuesday, June 2, 2020

MIT Sloan MBA Admissions Interview with Rod Garcia

Last week I had the pleasure of speaking with Rod Garcia, Director of Admissions at the MIT Sloan School of Business. He was kind enough to provide an update on MIT Sloan admissions, and insight into Sloans evaluation process. Accepted.com: Whats new at MIT Sloan? Is there anything new in MIT admissions? RG: We offer a relatively new specialized Masters in Finance, which is now in its second year. It started out with 25 students; this year that number has more than doubled with 59 matriculated students. The program has attracted star faculty members, including Nobel Prize winner Bob Merton, who recently retired from Harvard Business School. This year MIT Sloan also offers a new EMBA program. Jonathan Lehrich is heading up the program, and hes already received over 200 applications. There are currently no other top players in this region in the EMBA market, and we are filling a real need in this area. Another recent development is our new building. The goal is to bring the entire faculty into one place, though it will also have some classrooms. Furthermore, the building was designed to accommodate interaction, so it will become the locus of activity at Sloan. Officially, the building will have a soft opening September 16th, but the real inauguration will be next year during the 150th anniversary of MIT. Accepted.com: What do you anticipate in terms of application volume this year and in terms of hiring for the Class of 2011? How is your crystal ball looking? RG: I have been saying for several years that application volume should decline, and fortunately Ive been wrong. Application volume at MIT Sloan has increased cumulatively 57% over the last three years. It was up last year too. I told the deputy dean not to expect increases this year, and that weve already seen the high water mark. We received just under 5000 applications last year. Ive been at MIT for 22 years and have never seen anything like it. I do still think that the number of applications will start to decline for all schools. Regarding hiring: This year was better than last year, and I anticipate continued improvement. Now people know whats ahead. There are no false illusions of MBAs making hundreds of thousands upon graduation. I think the financial crisis acted as a reset button, resetting expectations of MBA applicants. Not bad at all. Right after 87s steep stock drop, we still saw people applying for degrees in finance. Then, and now, its the people who REALLY want the field and the industry. Theyre not just going for it because its sexy or because they are dazzled by visions of large salaries. The last two years saw a similar resetting of expectations and weeding out of the peripherally interested. And the students now know they have to work harder for their jobs. They know they need to do their share. Days of easy, multiple offers and big signing bonuses are over. People need to be (and are) much more realistic. Accepted.com: MITs Sloan Fellows program and its new EMBA program are both geared toward middle managers who want to move into senior management, usually people with more than 10 years of work experience. Does MIT Sloan prefer that candidates with more than 10 years of full-time work experience apply to one of these programs and not to the full-time program? RG: Not necessarily. We do have people with 10+ years of experience apply to the full-time MBA program. One difference between the Fellows program and the full-time program is that many Fellows are sponsored. The Sloan Fellows program has a relationship with companies/sponsors who still frequently sponsor students. Accepted.com: What if you have a 35-year-old who is not sponsored, where should he or she apply? RG: An MBA is better for career switchers. The Fellows program doesnt have the same career services. If they want a broader, longer program, then they should apply for an MBA. If they want an intensive program with peers, then the Fellows program is more appropriate. Accepted.com: In an interview with MBA Podcaster you emphasized the importance of above-average career progression relative to ones peers. How can an applicant show career progression when in a flat organization or self-employed? RG: Through the essays and recommendations. When we evaluate work experience, we look at work success relative to peers. Are you ahead or behind the curve? We want ahead of the curve. A good resume should show progression through increased responsibilities. Recommendations show it too and are important. The application is not just what a candidate is asserting; we need assertions to be backed up by recommendations. We want to see growth and ideally a comparison to peers, like In top 2% of peers or a similar comment. Length of experience doesnt make someone more competitive if that person has stagnated. How can early career applicants show that kind of progress? Early career applicants are encouraged to apply. MIT Sloan has admitted a handful of applicants straight from college. Really outstanding applicants. We look at internships, community service, and activities at school. You can see the path. They have sought opportunities and internships. They have been really involved, sometimes entrepreneurial. They are academically outstanding and also outstanding in the opportunities they have sought. Accepted.com: How do you read an MBA application? What do you look at first and then how do you go through it? RG: Theres no hard rule for this. Some do a quick scan of hard numbers: GMAT, grades, work, the resume. Some like to start with the recommendations. Some like to start with the cover letter. Some read resumes from the bottom. I personally do a quick scan to get an idea of who the person is. Then I like to read the recommendations because it gives me an idea of the candidate before he gets to paint his or her own portrayal. Sometimes its frustrating when a recommender does a great job of describing the candidate and then the applicant does a poor job of describing himself or herself. After reading the recommendation, I have a level of expectation and its disappointing when they fall flat. After the recommendations, I read the cover letter, resume, and essays. Message: Dont take things for granted. An application has to be consistently good. You dont know what the adcoms are going to pick up first or what theyll end with. Also, coach your recommenders. Educate them as to why you are applying so they can do a better job. Accepted.com: What makes an applicant come alive for you through his or her application? RG: We had one international applicant who had graduated from a liberal arts U.S. college and was working as an analyst for a large corporation. He left his job and went back to his under-developed home country to work in a social enterprise entity. That entity combined his hobby, his passion for helping the poor make a living, and his knowledge of business. Then he applied to Sloan, and he stood out by virtue of his initiative and entrepreneurship, and willingness to take a well-analyzed risk, pursue his hobby, do something he loves, and help the poor. His passion, energy, and commitment really stood out. People need to follow their passion. This guy did, and got in. Accepted.com: What is a real turn-off in an application or in applicant behavior? RG: Turn-off in applications: People recycling essays from other schools, especially when they havent proofed their essays and you see other schools names. Its just laziness. Also, a lot of people dont know how to write lettersno date, no address, no closing. They dont know how to use a professional format. Career development folks say such details still count. Turn-off in behavior: Some applicants are very rude on the phone or theyre discourteous to secretaries or receptionists. That is unacceptable behavior. They dont seem to be aware. Accepted.com: What is the one program at MIT that you wish more people knew about? RG: I wish they knew more about the work were doing in distributed leadership, especially the work of Deborah Ancona. Shes the head of MITs Leadership Center. For example, today we hosted 30 students from Norway, part of a BU program. Someone asked about teamswhat kinds of people should you seek on a team? Deborah Ancona teaches that there are four key areas of leadership: visioning, relating, sense making, and inventing. If you are strong in one area, you want team members who are strong in the areas that you are weak in. Distributed leadership implies that leadership is important at all levels, not just for the person on top. In fact, the success of the person on top is built on the successes of people on the bottom and everywhere in between. People load up on courses in finance, econ, and strategy while pursuing the MBA. They leave and move up the corporate ladder. Then they realize they didnt take any soft courses. I hear constantly from the alumni who wish they had taken the soft management courses like leadership, negotiation, etc. Accepted.com: What is the one attribute of the MIT Sloan community that people tend to appreciate only after they arrive? RG: The downto-earth nature of the student body, the faculty, and the deans. People are really surprised by that when they come here. People are generally a little intimidated by MIT, but it is really a very friendly place. I remember walking down the street, and saw someone ask a faculty member for directions. If only the asker had known that the person he had stopped was a Nobel Prize winner. People at MIT take the time to help. I know that once someone visits, they will choose to attend if accepted. Interested in more information about MIT Sloan, check out Accepteds MIT Sloan Bschool Zone. By Linda Abraham, President and Founder of Accepted.com.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Communication- Cultural Influences - 1970 Words

Write an essay about the social context of communication and how cultural influences shape how people communicate with each other In today’s 21st Century society through our day-to-day lives we encounter many different people from many different cultural backgrounds. It is almost inevitable that we will have to communicate with at least one other person on any given day. Whether this is at work, at school, while out shopping, or even when talking on the telephone, communication is vital in order to ensure that our wants and needs can be met and also to voice an opinion. As â€Å"different cultures have different approaches to communication† (Thompson, 2003 pg. 29), there will often be times when our interpretations of something communicated†¦show more content†¦As we integrate these different values and beliefs as our own we begin to establish a sense of unified belonging to those that share the same thoughts, beliefs, values and ideas as ourselves. In other words culture helps by â€Å"making the world a less mysterious and frightening place† (Thompson, 2003, pg 35), and also help s us to see the world as a bit more safe and predictable. As with the communication process cultural perceptions and behaviours can either be learnt sub-consciously or consciously. For example a consciously learnt behaviour might be a parent teaching a child how to brush their teeth, and a sub-consciously learnt perception might be that it is ok to objectify women, through watching multiple television advertisements. It is of importance to note that both of these examples; as with lots of important messages of a culture get repeated and reinforced. Because â€Å"it is through cultural signs and symbols that we are so often able to communicate with one another† (Thompson, 2003, pg 15), it is almost a given that in intercultural communication we will encounter barriers which will need to be overcome in order for communication to be productive. In order for effective intercultural communication to occur one must be aware of the different aspects of communication. These can include but are not limited to language usage, types of non-verbalShow MoreRelatedCultural Influence: Arab vs. English Communication Styles4001 Words   |  16 Pagesï » ¿Cultural Influence: Arab vs. English Communication Styles According to Joanna Jaworowska a speech act is simply   a minimal functional unit in human communication. Fundamentally, a speech act is the smallest form of communication. According to Austins theory (1962), any given speech act has three possible meanings: the propositional meaning, the illocutionary meaning, and the perlocutionary meaning (Jaworowska). For instance, the literal meaning might be: its cold in here. The illocutionaryRead MoreCross Cultural Perspectives Of Culture Essay1550 Words   |  7 PagesCross-Cultural Perspectives-900 words Culture refers to the values, rules, norms and behaviour as well as their products that govern the lifestyles of an individual or group. Cultural rules and behaviour are inherited from past generations, may be learned from others and are transmitted to other generation. Additionally, they embody the symbols and systems through which communication, attitudes and knowledge about life takes place. The set a certain group of people apart from others because the manifestationRead MoreAnalysis Of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie s Ted Talk, The Danger Of A Single Story1237 Words   |  5 Pagesproves how stories influence the way we perceive the world. She describes the single story as a narrative that surrounds only one perspective. The objective of her speech is to inform her audience that assuming something is true based on a single piece of information gives us incomplete and incorrect perceptions. Society is an accumulation of social stories, it is never just one thing. There are multiple, contingent and overlapping ways to experience and articulate cultural identity (Delgado,Read MoreVirtual Information Project Teams : Virtual Team1360 Words   |  6 Pagesshortcomings. Having a team of individuals with various personalities, perceptions, and values can cause assimilation to become difficult. During an individual’s lifetime, some remarkable human assets are acquired, resulting in the creation of his or her cultural background. National culture can be present on any team, but most teams are formed with members belonging to the same city or state, which makes it easier to arrange. However, a virtual team with a national culture is a more difficult concept toRead MoreUnderstanding Cultures And Intercultural Communication1512 Words   |  7 Pages â€Å"Understanding cultures and intercultural communication in terms of countries and nationalities is no longer relevant or effective.† Evaluate this statement, referring to relevant theories and using examples where appropriate. Student ID: 6749473 Academic subject: MSC Accounting and Financial Management Word count: 1511 Topicï ¼Å¡Ã¢â‚¬Å"Understanding cultures and intercultural communication in terms of countries and nationalities is no longer relevant or effective.† Evaluate this statement, referringRead MoreThe Term â€Å"Culture† Refers To The Complex Accumulation Of1415 Words   |  6 Pagesordinary things? Core values influence actions, and we act in ways that we believe hold the most useful means of satisfying needs. Values influence behavior. They are why we do what we do, say what we do, and think as we do. How a society perceives personal values and norms can drastically change how things are interpreted and could be offensive to some. Meanings and connotations in many gestures and words are not the same universally. Understanding through Communication Many people think that underneathRead More The Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory Essay686 Words   |  3 Pagesextended to interpersonal communication between two people from different cultures. Uncertainty refers to how well you can accurately predict how strangers will behave during their initial interaction and the ability to explain the strangers behavior. Research on uncertainty reduction theory has been limited to attitude similarity. However, it has been argued that in order to understand the influence of similarity on interpersonal relations, research must examine cultural similarity/dissimilarityRead MoreCommunication : Language And Communication1664 Words   |  7 PagesHannah Tate Maness ENG 111.4405 17 November 2015 Language and Communication Imagine moving to a different country and not understanding the language and the not knowing how to ask for help? This would be difficult for anyone to experience. Individuals will most likely encounter someone that speaks a different language. Those that are trying to understand someone that has a different language can be difficult when they do not speak the language. Individuals will try to communicate in some way evenRead MoreCultural Background Of Cross Cultural Communication1328 Words   |  6 Pages Introduction Culture is defined by the behavior and knowledge of a specific group of people, such as language, religion and customs. Cross cultural communication studies how people from different countries, social status, and upbringing interact with each other In this new era of globalization cross cultural communication in organization it is not no longer a theory because of all the transformation that are happening are in the world we live in. People from different backgroundsRead MoreA Brief Note On Cross Cultural Communication Within The Company1686 Words   |  7 PagesProblems or difficulties of cross-cultural communication within the company Language problem and other difficulties. English is the communication language within the company but it’s not native for the Russian managers. Therefore, they admit some difficulties related to this, such as sometimes it’s necessary to ask for the details from their American colleagues to understand their requests better. American managers admit the language difficulties as well but they understand that it’s not easy to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Woman Can Get Hurt Advertising And Violence, By Jean...

â€Å"Sex in advertising is more about disconnection and distance than connection and closeness. It is also more often about power than passion, about violence than violins† (491). Media has developed an abusive view on women, particularly on their bodies and their sexuality. Not only does it judge women on their bodies and sexuality, media also undermines women’s intelligence and glorifies rape and violence. Media has made girls and boys think that it is okay to rape and be violent in a relationships. Media has also formed the idea that sex is the most important thing in a relationship, which is ruining relationships. The article, â€Å"Two Ways a Woman Can Get Hurt: Advertising and Violence,† by Jean Kilbourne examines how women are portrayed in†¦show more content†¦This is achieved by objectifying people. As Kilbourne argues â€Å"Sex in advertising is pornographic because it dehumanizes and objectifies people† (Kilbourne, 491-2). The mass med ia is blatantly objectifying people, which is wrong. We all know it to be wrong. So why then, do we allow it to continue? Perhaps this is because the objectification of people has become so commonplace in our society that we just accept it? However, that doesn’t make it right. Kilbourne s image of the media is chilling. But, perhaps it is necessary. People need to act against the mass media. Or they will just keep at it until we are nothing but sex objects. Sexual assault and violence is increasing due to advertisements misinforming people into believing that such behavior is acceptable. â€Å"In the 1960’s Kilbourne found that she received more recognition for her looks rather than her intelligence† (Grean and Lidinisky, 490). Perhaps this is why Kilbourne wrote her book, Deadly Persuasion, analyzing this problem. Kilbourne found herself in the environment bubble the media is creating where the objective analysis of people is acceptable. Kilbourne’s book is an attempt to bring awareness towards how much harm the media’s portrayal of people is generating. Kilbourne’s book is mainly targeted towards women, and is trying to spur them towards action in an attempt to change the world and, moreShow MoreRelatedTwo Ways a Woman Can Get Hurt: Advertising and Violence Essay688 Words   |  3 PagesIn â€Å"Two Ways a Woman Can get Hurt: Advertising and Violence,† the author Jean Kilbourne describes how advertising and violence is a big problem for women. Although her piece is a little scrambled, she tries to organize it with different types of advertisement. Women are seen as sex objects when it comes to advertising name brand products. Corporate representatives justify selling and marketing for a product by how a woman looks. Kilbourne explains how the media is a big influence on how men perceiveRead MoreMedia s Effect On Society1496 Words   |  6 Pagesan image. Violence is persuasive and now a troubling aspect of the new world. Media shows us that women need to have the newest trends and ultra-thin bodies to be considered beautiful in society. It tells us that the most important thing is our image. Jean Kilbourne talks about how the image of woman has changed so much over the last twenty years. Woman’s bodies haven’t changed what changed is the ideal body. Media creates a climate where there is a wide spread of violence against woman. Ads don’tRead MoreTw o Ways a Woman Can Get Hurt1060 Words   |  5 PagesIn Jean Kilbourne’s essay, â€Å"Two Ways a Woman Can Get Hurt†: Advertising and Violence, she paints a picture of repression, abuse, and objectification of women. Kilbourne gives an eye-opening view to the way American advertisers portray women and girls. Throughout the essay she has images that depict women in compromising poses. These images are examples of how often we see women in dehumanizing positions in advertisements and how desensitized we have become. Kilbourne implores us to take the mediaRead MoreAnalysis on Kilbournes Argument Essay1430 Words   |  6 PagesViolence is everywhere in the United States of America. Many people in America and around the world have been a victim or know someone who has been a victim of violence. Over 22 million women in the United States have been raped in their lifetime according to the website, Victims of Crime. This number is significant. Advertisements could play a role in making violence more acceptable in our society. PETA, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, is known for having shocking advertisements. ThisRead MoreAnalysis Of Jean Kilbourne s Two Ways A Woman Can Get Hurt Essay1669 Words   |  7 PagesJean Kilbourne’s essay Two Ways a Woman Can Get Hurt is a powerful piece of work that brings the problems of the sexualization and objectification of women and children in advertising out in the open. Kilbourne states that this pornographic advertising is promoting male dominance over women, and in return promoting male violence against women. Domestic abuse and violence against women have always been a problem, but the media may be making it worse. Her audience is middle-aged and younger women whoRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article The Wonder Woman Precedent : Female Heroism On Trial714 Words   |  3 PagesIn the article â€Å"The Wonder Woman Precedent: Female (Super)Heroism on Trial†, Julie O’Reilly makes a clear argument that females have to constantly prove themselves worthy while men just get to choose to be heroes, no questions asked. In the article â€Å"Two Way a Woman Can Get Hurt: Advertising and Violence†, Jean Kilbourne argues that there is violence in our culture, particularly sexualized violence controlled by the media. With the help of Kilbourne’s article, it emphasizes clearly that women areRead MoreBite of Twilight1489 Words   |  6 Pagesprofessor of English and women’s studies at Bell State University, and Two Ways a Women Can Get Hurt, written by Jean Kilbourne who is an award winning author and educator, the idea of feminism in today’s media is questioned. Seiring writes about a popular book, titled Twilight, and how the main female character of the novel goes against the idea of feminism. Kilbourne, however, writes about how advertising in today’s society is portraying women in a distinctively non-feminist way. Both authorsRe ad MoreGender Roles And Relations Between Women And Women903 Words   |  4 Pageslevel the declared rights and opportunities and today the women as social communities don t have access to different social status, resources, privileges, prestige and power. Today the aim is to identify the most common gender stereotypes used in advertising, and determine their impact on the integration of the individuals in society. Current priorities in the education of boys and girls are not hard to consolidate standards of masculinity and femininity, but is to explore potential partnershipsRead MoreViolence in Advertising: Are They Selling Rape and Violence Against Women?1622 Words   |  7 PagesAdvertising is one of the most popular ways to promote a product. Through advertisement the creators of these products can make millions of dollars, depending on how successful their advertisements are. But are the advertisement selling a product that will help them or are they selling violence and sex? Many ads can influence people in different ways. One of these ways is to show women as objects of rape and sexual abuse. In, â€Å"Two Ways a Woman Can Get Hurt† Kilbourne talks about how many ads useRead MoreEssay about Two Ways a Woman Can Get Hurt by Jean Kilbourne1577 Words   |  7 PagesFor the longest time now, advertising has played a huge role in how we identify ourselves in the United St ates with the American culture, and how others identify themselves with all the cultures of the rest of the world as well. It guides us in making everyday decisions, such as what items we definitely need to invest our money on, how to dress in-vogue, and what mindset we should have to prosper the most. Although advertising does help make life easier for most, at the same time it has negative

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

BIO Notes On Organic Chemistry Essay Research free essay sample

BIO Notes On Organic Chemistry Essay, Research Paper The chemical science of life ( Populating things made largely of saccharides, fat and protein ) CARBOHYDRATES energy manufacturer # 183 ; Contain C, H and O # 183 ; Glucose is the simplest ( dissolves easy in H2O ) monosaccharose # 183 ; Starch is besides common ( solid, tonss of glucose molecules in a concatenation ( condensation ) ) disaccharide # 183 ; Starch is broken down into glucose as good ( add H2O # 224 ; hydrolysis ) FAT energy manufacturer insularity and energy shop # 183 ; Contain C, H and O # 183 ; Contains more C + H # 183 ; Fat molecule is made up of glycerin and fatty acids. # 183 ; Condensation and hydrolysis drama parts here? Protein # 183 ; Contain C, H, O, N ( and sulfur ) # 183 ; Made of blocks ( aminic acids ) and links ( peptide links ) # 183 ; 22 amino acids in nature # 183 ; Hydrolysis # 224 ; concatenation of proteins split ( polypeptides ) so broken to little amino acids # 183 ; Reverse in condensation # 183 ; Soluble proteins make up enzymes. # 183 ; Denaturalisation occurs when molecule form alterations when heated. Chemical Chemical reaction # 183 ; Occur chiefly in intestine and cells # 183 ; Chemical reactions in cells is metamorphosis # 183 ; Interrupting down or connection options # 183 ; All reactions are catalysed by enzymes. Enzymes Importance # 183 ; To rush up reactions # 183 ; They are biological accelerators # 183 ; TYPES Extracellular enzymes are produced and leave cell to work outside # 183 ; Intracellular enzymes work indoors cell ENZYME CONTROLLED REACTION # 183 ; Maltose ( substrate ) # 224 ; maltase ( enzyme ) # 224 ; glucose ( merchandise ) Property # 183 ; Always proteins # 183 ; Specific # 183 ; Reclaimable # 183 ; Destroyed by heat over 45 Celsius # 183 ; Sensitive to pH HOW DO THEY Work? # 183 ; Enzyme molecule has active site # 183 ; Substrate fits into active site # 183 ; Reaction takes topographic point # 183 ; Merchandises leave site. Helping HINDERING # 183 ; Anything which helps substrate range enzyme speeds up reaction # 183 ; Poisons halt temporarily/ for good the active site ENZYME Use # 183 ; Biological lavation pulverizations # 183 ; Tendering meats, clambering fish, taking hairs # 183 ; Softening veggies, taking seed coats # 183 ; Syrups, fruit-juices, cocoas Food and Diet OUR DIET # 183 ; Carbohydrates # 183 ; Fats # 183 ; Proteins # 183 ; Water # 183 ; Minerals # 183 ; Vitamins Carbohydrates # 183 ; Sugar gives energy # 183 ; Starch are usually found in little grains called amylum granules they besides give us energy # 183 ; Cellulose for workss make a cell wall for worlds it makes a dietetic fiber maintaining the nutrient traveling along the intestine Fat # 183 ; Chiefly give us energy # 183 ; Saturated means that there is no more room for atoms to add on to the bing molecule. # 183 ; Unsaturated is the antonym. Protein # 183 ; Needed for growing fix and little sums of energy # 183 ; Kwashiorkor # 224 ; disease with the deficiency of protein # 183 ; Proteins are made of aminic acids # 183 ; Essential amino acids are 1s we can non do but alternatively take in digestively Water # 183 ; Absolutely indispensable # 183 ; Needed in all life signifiers and contained in largely all substances Minerals # 183 ; Sodium. Is a salt. It helps messages to be sent and musculus contraction. Lack of causes spasms in musculuss # 183 ; Calcium used for indurating our castanetss and dentitions. Hardening can merely take topographic point when they take up Ca phosphate and carbonate ( calcification ) . Lack of causes rachitiss ( soft, weak, distorted castanetss ) . # 183 ; Phosphorus. We need it to be absorbed into the Ca. It occurs in membranes. # 183 ; Iron. Present in hemoglobin ( conveyances O2 ) . Lack of cause anemia: less O2 transported, less energy. # 183 ; Iodine. Trace component: needed in bantam measures. We get from sea nutrient and imbibing H2O. Needed to do tetraiodothyronine. Lack of causes goitre or? Derbyshire cervix? : puffiness of thyroid secretory organ next to Adam? s apple. # 183 ; Fluorine. Trace component. Prevents tooth decay. Vitamins # 183 ; Collection of organic substances which control reactions in the organic structure. # 183 ; ( A ) . Vitamin a1: of import for our eyes. Lack of causes night-blindness or xerophthalmus. Fat soluble # 183 ; ( B ) . Niac in ( nicotinic acid ) . Lack of: Pellagra. Vitamin b1: deficiency of is Beri-beri. Vitamin b2: causes sores in tegument around oral cavity. Water soluble # 183 ; ( C ) . Ascorbic acid. Keep epithelial tissue healthy. Lack of cause scorbutus: hemorrhage in assorted parts of the organic structure. Water soluble # 183 ; ( D ) . Calciferol. Helps child? s castanetss become strong. Lack of cause rachitiss. Can be obtained from fish liver oil or the organic structure through sunshine. Fat soluble # 183 ; ( E ) . Found in milk and egg yolk. Lack of cause asepsis. Fat soluble # 183 ; ( K ) . Helps blood coagulum. Lack of causes internal, external hemorrhage. Fat-soluble. # 183 ; Composition of different nutrients helps us place utile substances. # 183 ; Vegetarian: eats no carnal meat but does eat merchandises. Vegans do non eat carnal merchandises. # 183 ; Food additives: substances that are added to nutrient. Some give alteration to color, gustatory sensation, saving or consistence. How substances are stored WHY DO ORGANISMS STORE SUBSTANCES? # 183 ; So that they can last when nutrient is unavailable or scarce # 183 ; Man can last several hebdomads WHERE ARE SUBSTANCES STORED? # 183 ; The chief storage topographic point is the liver for worlds. # 183 ; For workss they swell up and do the swelling the storage topographic point. The works storage organ can last rough conditions so a new works spouts and the nutrient is moved at that place. PLANTS STORAGE SYSTEM # 183 ; Green workss produce glucose that is either used heterosexual off or turned into amylum and converted back to glucose when needed. # 183 ; Other substances can be made from glucose in workss ( oil, sugar ) REQUIREMENTS FOR TURNING STARCH INTO GLUCOSE # 183 ; Enzyme # 183 ; Can be tested with amylum HOW STARCH IS TURNED INTO GLUCOSE # 183 ; Glucose molecules join together and gyrate up organizing a amylum grain ( condensation ) # 183 ; The amylum grain can de-coil and divide up organizing Glucose ( hydrolysis ) ANIMALS STORAGE SYSTEM # 183 ; Get glucose from nutrient # 183 ; They turn glucose into animal starch # 183 ; Glycogen is a bondage of glucose molecules linked together # 183 ; Stored in the liver # 183 ; It is besides stored as fat Mobilization # 183 ; This is when a solid signifier of nutrient has to be transported and it is broken down into a solution. # 183 ; Starch and animal starch are broken down into glucose. # 183 ; Fat is broken down into fatty acids and glycerin IMPORTANCE OF FOOD STORES # 183 ; Storage of nutrient in beings normally mean they are traveling to be packed together closely, this means anything like this can be a rich beginning for worlds Obtaining energy from nutrient FOOD CONTAINING ENERGY # 183 ; We can look into this by firing nutrient and gauging the sum of heat given out. ( kJ ) # 183 ; kJ per Gram carbohydrates-17, fat-39, protein-18 ENERGY CONTAINED IN FOOD # 183 ; determines how it should be cooked # 183 ; Depends on substances inside the nutrient. ENERGY PER DAY # 183 ; Basal metabolic rate: rate at which organic structure procedures take topographic point # 183 ; Approximately 7000kj per twenty-four hours if lying down making nil # 183 ; At least 9200 kJ per twenty-four hours for making nil but indispensable undertakings EXCESS Eating # 183 ; Most extra non used is turned into fat. Body weight additions # 183 ; Obesity is when we take in more energy ( through nutrient ) than we give out. # 183 ; More exercising, ingestion of less energy-containing nutrients halt or lessening fleshiness MINIMAL EATING ( STARVATION ) # 183 ; First energy shops from fat will be used up. # 183 ; Takes energy from musculuss # 183 ; Becomes thin and weak # 183 ; Anorexia nervosa: psychological loss of appetency # 183 ; Marasmus blowing off due to starvation Energy release-respiration FOOD Burning # 183 ; Oxygen is needed # 183 ; Carbon dioxide, H2O and heat are produced ENERGY PRODUCTION IN HUMANS # 183 ; C6H12O6 + 6O2 # 224 ; 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY # 183 ; We can look into the relationship between O2+CO2 and interrupting down of nutrient by utilizing radioactive tracers and mice. ENERGY USES # 183 ; Animal-movement, messages, transit, heat, growing, cell division, osmosis, and life! # 183 ; Plants taking up mineral salts, opening/closing pores, transporting nutrient substances, growing, cell division, osmosis, and life! CHEMISTRY OF RESPIRATION # 183 ; Respirometer measures sum of O taken in # 183 ; Energy produced from glucose is linked to adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) # 183 ; Breakdown of glucose is used to do ATP # 183 ; ATP non Glucose gives energy towards musculus contractions

Saturday, April 18, 2020

What are the key features of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Essay Example

What are the key features of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Paper In the first century AD, the Stoic philosopher Epictetus observed that people are not disturbed by the events that happen, more so by the view that they take of them (Woolfe and Dryden, 1996). The view a person takes of an event depends on their chosen orientation, and their orientation is influenced by their beliefs about their self in relation to the world (Woolfe and Dryden, 1996). This is the theoretical origin of contemporary Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, one of the major orientations of psychotherapy deriving from cognitive and behavioural psychological models of human behaviour (Grazebrook and Garland, 2005). The earlier of the two approaches was behaviourism, created by JB Watson in 1919 when academic psychology was in its infancy. Watson believed psychology need only concern itself with overtly observable phenomena, not invisible thoughts and images (McLeod, 2003). One of the primary theories pioneered by behaviourists such as Skinner, Watson, Pavlov, Tolman and Thorndike was that all behaviour and beliefs must be learned, and controlled laboratory experiments proceeded to discover how they were learned (McLeod, 2003). Pavlovs (1927) Classical Conditioning model and Skinners (1938) Operant model of learning (Gross, 2005) were the first attempts made to turn behaviourism into therapy and provided the rationale for the Systematic Desensitisation Technique (McLeod, 2003) devised by Wolpe in 1958 (Gross, 2005). However, Tolman (1948) ran a series of experiments with laboratory rats and a maze, which led him to believe they had created a mental map of the maze introducing the study of internal mental events (or cognitions) to behaviourism (Gross, 2005). We will write a custom essay sample on What are the key features of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on What are the key features of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on What are the key features of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This new interest in cognition eventually led to the cognitive revolution and the limitations of the stimulus response analysis of human behaviour had in effect been reversed as the fixation of the introspectionists with inner, mental events or cognitions returned to govern psychology once again. This time however, allied to more sophisticated research methods than naive introspection (McLeod, 2003). During the 1960s and 1970s, two pioneering psychologists of psychoanalytic background, Ellis and Beck (respectively) became increasingly aware of the importance in the way the clients though about themselves. Ellis had evolved a more active style of therapy than the associated Cognitive therapy, which over time was renamed several times, but most recently known as Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT). High levels of challenge and confrontation during therapy enabled the client to scrutinise their irrational beliefs or crooked thinking, which Ellis believed stemmed from seeing life in terms of musts or shoulds which he claimed were invariably exaggerated or overstated and the cause of most emotional problems (McLeod, 2003). Elliss (1962) ABC model of human disturbance has made a great impact on the progress and current popularity of cognitive-behaviour therapy (De Bernardi and Wirga, date not known). The A stands for the Actualising event. C stands for the emotional or behavioural consequence and between A and C comes B, the beliefs about the event. Events and the emotional consequences are determined by the belief about the event rather than the actual event (McLeod, 2003). Beck (1976) in his story of his conversion to cognitive therapy explained how after years of working in the psychoanalytic tradition, he was struck by the impact of the patients cognition on his feelings and behaviour. His theory postulates that incorrect habits of interpreting and processing date are learned during cognitive development. The basic concepts of cognitive therapy are fundamentals of contemporary CBT. The first of these concepts is that of schemas, cognitive structures of peoples fundamental beliefs and assumptions which can be adaptive of maladaptive (Nelson-Jones, 2006). Second are Modes, networks of cognition that interpret and adapt to ongoing situations (Beck and Weishaar, 2005). Another is that of cognitive vulnerability, humans cognitive frailty unique to each individual and based upon their schemas (Nelson-Jones, 2006). Dysfunctional beliefs embedded in to schemas contribute to another basic concept called cognitive distortion (Nelson-Jones, 2006). Becks Cognitive Distortion Model (1976) is the best known model of cognitive processing used by cognitive behavioural therapists. Perceptions of events become highly selective, egocentric and rigid when they perceive a situation as threatening causing impairment to the function of normal cognitive processing (McLeod, 2003). .Beck (1976) identified many different kinds of cognitive distortion including; arbitrary inference, selective abstraction, overgeneralisation, magnification, minimisation and personalisation (McLeod, 2003). Beck described self critical cognitions as automatic thoughts, one of the keys to successful therapy. Automatic thoughts reflect schema content, deeper beliefs and assumptions which are less accessible to awareness (Nelson-Jones, 2006). Acquisition of schemas, automatic thoughts and cognitive distortions and the associated vulnerability to psychological distress, is the result of many factors such as; evolutionary, biological developmental and environmental. Many of these are common across individuals, however, each person has their own unique variations (Nelson-Jones, 2006). The therapeutic goals of cognitive therapy are to re-energise the reality testing system (Nelson-Jones, 2006). Also, to teach the client adaptive meta-cognition, which is the ability to change oneself and environment in order achieve therapeutic change (McLeod, 2003). This concept is central to the work of Ellis and Beck and has been widely researched in developmental psychology. Another therapeutic goal in cognitive psychology is to enable the client to become their own therapist, by providing skills for problem solving for example. Ellis (1962) and Beck (1976) led the way for many other clinicians and writers within the cognitive behavioural paradigm to further develop this (historically, most recent) approach to counselling with yearly contributions of new ideas and techniques being added (Dryden and Golden, 1986: Dryden and Trower, 1988; Dobson, 1988, Freeman et al, 1989). The term Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is now used to refer to behaviour therapy, cognitive therapy and to any therapy based upon the pragmatic amalgamation of the ideology of both cognitive and behavioural theories (Grazebrook and Garland, 2005). There are many facets to contemporary CBT as a result of the previously mentioned mass of regular contributions of new ideas and theories. There are however some key features comprehensively laid out by Grazebook and Garland (2005) as follows. CBT is based on scientific principles which research has proven effective for a wide variety of psychological disorders. A therapeutic alliance is formed between the client and counsellor to gain a shared view of problems in relation to the clients thoughts, feelings and behaviour, usually in relation to the here and now. This usually leads to the agreement of personalised and time limited therapy goals and strategies which the counsellor will continually monitor and evaluate with the client. The outcome of therapy is to focus on specific psychological and practical skills, through reflection and exploration of the meaning attributed to events and situations, and the re-evaluation of those meanings. The treatments are intrinsically empowering, aimed at enabling the client to tackle their problems by employing their own resources. Acquiring and using such skills is seen as the main target, the active component being promotion of change, in particular using homework to put what has been learned into practice between sessions. The client will hopefully accredit the improvement in their problems to their own efforts, with their alliance with the counsellor (Grazebook and Garland, 2005). One of the main differences between CBT and person centred therapy (PCT) is the therapeutic relationship between counsellor and client, which in cognitive behavioural therapy is characterised more as a psycho-educational rather than a medical one (McLeod, 2003). Less attention is paid to the quality of the relationship than to the technical aspects of the therapy although it is not believed to be unimportant. In CBT its is taken for granted that the relationship is necessary, Beck et al (1979) did stress the importance of warmth, accurate empathy and genuineness, but it is not believed to be sufficient to provide therapeutic change (Woolfe and Dryden, 1996) as professed by Rogers (1957) in his proposal of the six necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic change. In CBT there is a Therapist Client Rating Scale (Bennun et al, 1986) where the client can rate the therapist on three factors, positive regard/interest, activity/guidance, and competency/interest. The positive regard is one of Carl Rogers conditions, however, Rogers believed that the clients self-concept was affected by a lack of unconditional acceptance in life. The crucial aspect of UPR in person centred therapy is that the client more explore and express freely, without feeling they must do anything in particular to meet any specific standards of behaviour to earn positive regard from the therapist (Mulhauser, 2007), however, CBT is less concerned with insight and relinquishes the endless search for past hurts and teaches the client how to prevent negative thoughts from creeping into their minds (Langerth, 2007) through set tasks, agendas, and homework assignments (Nelson-Jones, 2006), Another difference between the two approaches is the lesser appreciation of the impact that the counsellors self has on therapy, and cognitive behavioural therapists are not expected to undergo personal therapy, even though the approach allows confrontation and challenging of the client (McLeod. 2006). The basic tenet of the CBT approach is to change the clients thinking which results in a change of behaviour and feelings, when this is directed by the therapist rather than self-directed (as in PCT) there are recurring themes in CBT of management, control and monitoring, particularly from the behavioural origins emphasising operant and classic conditioning (McLeod. 2006). An important task for early behaviourists was to discover how behaviour is learned. McLeod (2005) suggests that this might be due to the coinciding growth of the American advertising industry and the consequent need to control and manipulate consumer behaviour. Interestingly, Watson himself left his academic life to become an advertising executive (McLeod, 2003). In contrast, person centred therapy notes from the outset that the client is their own best authority the focus of PCT is always on the clients own feelings and thoughts, as opposed to judgement by the counsellor through diagnosis or categorisation (Mulhauser, 2007) such as Persons (1993) conceptualisation involves the counsellor devising a mini-theory of the clients problems (McLeod,2003). PCT typically does not give advice or interpretations as Rogers believed that people are trustworthy with a great potential for self awareness and self-directed growth (Cooper, 2007). Ellis (1973) actually claimed that there were virtually no legitimate reasons for a client to be upset, emotionally disturbed or hysterical, regardless of any psychological or verbal stimuli impinged on them. The implications for the therapeutic relationship when the counsellor believes the client is irrational might be considered concerning, by person centred counsellors or theorists who encourage clients to encounter themselves and become more intimate with their own thoughts, feelings and meanings (Mulhauser, 2007). Person centred counsellors aim to help the client develop a framework for understanding life, rather than aiming to fix people like Ellis implies (McLeod, 2006). The efficacy of CBT is a further contrasting aspect, as the approach prides itself on how its effectiveness is amply confirmed in research literature (McLeod, 2006). The philosophy of the Scientist-Practitioner model (Barlow et al, 1984) stresses therapists should integrate ideas of science with their practice, which through a wide array of techniques will provide counsellors with a rewarding sense of competence and potency (McLeod, 2003). CBT maintains a healthy respect for the value of research as means of improving practice, enabling practitioners to be critical and questioning, learning constructively from their colleagues (Woolfe and Dryden, 1996). Person centred therapy however has a developed a reputation for being research aversive and counsellors steer from using evaluation tools on their clients or categorising them by predefined diagnostic measures. The NICE guidelines for mental health and behavioural conditions also indicate little evidence of controlled research on person centred therapy (Cooper, 2007). Cognitive behavioural therapy is brief and time limited, structured and directive in form, whereas person centred therapy is long term, non-directive and the client is the expert. CBT is problem/solution orientation and based on an educational model where homework is the central feature. PCT could be considered simply problem focused, based on feelings and emotions rather than thoughts and behaviour. A sound therapeutic method is necessary but not entirely sufficient in CBT, in contrast to Rogers claim of the relationship and unconditional positive regard being sufficient to provide therapeutic change. The Socratic method of questioning is a key feature of both CBT and PCT, using guided questioning to promote a change in self perception in order to achieve what is after all the main aim of both approaches to make the clients life happier and more satisfying.

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Primitive Data Types in Java Programming

Primitive Data Types in Java Programming In almost every Java program you will find primitive data types being used. They provide a way to store the simple values the program is dealing with. For example, consider a calculator program that allows the user to perform mathematical calculations. In order for the program to achieve its goal, it has to be capable of storing the values the user enters. This can be done using variables. A variable is a container for a specific kind of value that is known as a data type. Primitive Data Types Java comes with eight primitive data types to handle simple data values. They can be split into four categories by the kind of value they hold: Integers: these are positive and negative whole numbers.Floating Point Numbers: any number that has a fractional part.Characters: a single character.Truth Values: either true or false. Integers Integers hold number values that cannot have a fractional part. There are four different types: byte: uses one byte to store values from -128 to 127short: uses two bytes to store values from -32,768 to 32,767int: uses four bytes to store values from -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647long: uses eight bytes to store values from -9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to 9,223,372,036,854,775,807 As you can see from above the only difference between the types are the range of values they can hold. Their ranges directly correlate to the amount of space the data type needs to store its values. In most cases when you want to represent a whole number use the int data type. Its ability to hold numbers from just under -2 billion to a little over 2 billion will be suitable for most integer values. However, if for some reason you need to write a program that uses as little memory as possible, consider the values you need to represent and see if the byte or short is a better choice. Likewise, if you know the numbers you need to store are higher than 2 billion then use the long data type. Floating Point Numbers Unlike integers, floating point numbers like fractional parts. There are two different types: float: uses four bytes to store values from -3.4028235E38 to 3.4028235E38double: uses eight bytes to store values from -1.7976931348623157E308 to 1.7976931348623157E308 The difference between the two is simply the range of fractional numbers they can hold. Like integers the range directly correlates to the amount of space they need to store the number. Unless you have memory concerns its best to use the double data type in your programs. It will handle fractional numbers to the precision needed in most applications. The main exception will be in financial software where rounding errors cannot be tolerated. Characters There is only one primitive data type that deals with individual characters – the char. The char can hold the value of one character and is based on 16-bit Unicode encoding. The character might be a letter, digit, punctuation, a symbol or a control character (e.g., a character value that represents a newline or a tab). Truth Values As Java programs deal in logic there needs to be a way to determine when a condition is true and when it is false. The boolean data type can hold those two values; it can only be true or false.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Marketing Plan Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Marketing Plan - Assignment Example As such, the social media marketing will be mainly concentric upon brand recognition and promoting the website as a viable alternative for career women that are both interested in function and style (Kawazoe & Abetti, 2013). Accordingly, prior to this particular phase of marketing being engaged, it will be absolutely interval to ensure that each and every problem that might be evidenced within the initial rollout of the website should be operable and fully functional. And added component of this particular phase that can be utilized is to provide a bonus structure through which individuals that reference which social media outlet they came from and what prompted them to purchase their products will further assist the company in helping to strategize how best practices within social media marketing can be further accomplished in the future. The second phase of the marketing strategy will once again be constrained by the fact that the firm does not have a very large budget and cannot engage in glitzy advertising like many of the more established brands. Nevertheless, the second phase will be concentric upon blanketing some of the most high traffic pedestrian areas within the Washington DC Metro area and passing out pamphlets/suppliers/marketing material that draws attention to the fact that a new women’s footwear store is soon to be opening that seeks to provide a nexus between fashion and comfort. Naturally, even though this secondary phase of the marketing process will be somewhat different as compared to the first, it is necessary for the developers to ensure that a certain level of similarity exists so that individuals that might have been exposed to the first level of social media marketing will not find this to be a conflicting or otherwise separate level of engagement (Jacobsen, 2012). As compared to the s ocial media phase, this particular phase will take place within approximately one month’s time. Similar to the social